How Logical Operators work in JavaScript?

Let’s understand the Logical Operators and how they work in JavaScript…

  1. Logical AND (&&)
  2. Logical OR (||)
  3. Logical NOT (!)

Logical operators are typically used with Boolean values but can also be used with non-Boolean values-

=> When values are Boolean then they return a Boolean value

=> When values are non-Boolean then they may return a non-Boolean value. In this case && and || operators actually return the value of one of the specified operands



Programming is Easy…



What is ES-5, ES-6 or ES2015 and TypeScript? [ES = ECMAScript]

Before discussing ES5 or ES6 let’s discuss what actually is ECMAScript-

ECMAScript is a standard, JavaScript is an implementation of that standard. ECMAScript defines the standard and browsers implement it.

In a similar way, HTML specifications (most recently HTML5) are defined by the organising body and are implemented by the browser vendors. Different browsers implement specifications in different ways, and there’s varying amounts of support for different features.

  1. ES5-  ES5 is the JavaScript we know today and use in web applications. It does not require a build step to transform it into something that will run in today’s browsers.
  2. ES6 – Also called ES2015 is the next iteration of JavaScript with many enhanced features( but it does not run in today’s browsers. So we need a transpiler like Babel that will export ES5 code means it will compile ES6 code to ES5 code that today’s browsers support and can be run easily in the today’s browsers. 
  3. TypeScript – TypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that also compiles to plain JavaScript. This is pulling in features from ES6, ES7… Or future’s JavaScript. It help us to write safe JavaScript code means mistakes in JavaScript code can be noticed at development time due to it’s compile feature. As this is the superset of JavaScript so it contains JavaScript and some additional features as well.

What is “this” value in JavaScript?

In JavaScript a function’s this keyword value is –

  1. determined by how a function is called. 
  2. never static and has a different value depending on how the function was invoked.

Below are the this values in different execution context- 

  • Global Context– In the global execution context (outside of any function), this refers to the global object, whether in strict mode or not.
  • Function Context – If code is not in strict mode, and because the value of this is not set by the call, this will default to the global object- In strict mode, however, the value of this remains at whatever it was set to when entering the execution context, so, in the following case, this will default to undefined 
    So, in strict mode, if this was not defined by the execution context, it remains undefined.
  • Custom value- To pass this value from one context to another we can use call or apply functionsWhere a function uses the this keyword in its body, its value can be bound to a particular object in the call using the call or apply methods which all functions inherit from Function.prototype

Can not find element using id having special character in jQuery ?

If you have special characters (!”#$%&'()*+,./:;?@[\]^`{|}~) in your HTML element’s name or ID then it can not be find using jQuery find method.  You have to escape the character with two backslashes \\.

For example, if you have an element with id=””, you can use the selector $(“#foo\\.bar”)

// Does not work:
$( "#some:id" )
// Works!
$( "#some\\:id" )
// Does not work:
$( "" )
// Works!
$( "#some\\.id" )




How to parse XML in JavaScript ?

If you are looking for how to parse XML in javascript then this article may can help you. Below is the basic concept for this-


    <script src="//"></script>

        var strXML = "<Students>" +
                        "<Student>" +
                            "<Name>Student 1</Name>" +
                            "<Class>Class 1</Class>" +
                         "</Student>" +
                         "<Student>" +
                            "<Name>Student 2</Name>" +
                            "<Class>Class 2</Class>" +
                        "</Student>" +

        function parseXml(xml) {
            var parser = new DOMParser(strXML)
            var doc = parser.parseFromString(strXML, 'text/xml');

            var result = [];

            var arrTemp = doc.firstChild.childNodes;

            for (var i = 0; i < arrTemp.length; i++) {

                var tempObj = {};
                for (var j = 0; j < arrTemp[i].childNodes.length; j++) {
                    var node = arrTemp[i].childNodes[j];
                    tempObj[node.tagName] = node.textContent;



        window.onload = parseXml(strXML);



Programming is Easy…

When to use require and when to use define in Require.JS ?

Define :-  With define you register a module in require.js that you than can depend on in other module definitions or require statements i.e If you want to declare a module other parts of your application will depend on.

The define() function accepts two optional parameters (a string that represent a module ID and an array of required modules)
and one required parameter (a factory method). The return of the factory method MUST return the implementation for your module.

Using define() you are asking something like “run the function that I am passing as a parameter and assign whatever returns to the ID that I am passing but, before, check that these dependencies are loaded”.

Require:- With require you “just” load/use a module or javascript file that can be loaded by require.js

The require() function doesn’t have to return the implementation of a new module. Using require() you are saying something like “the function that I pass has the following dependencies, check that these dependencies are loaded before running it”.

The require() function is where you use your defined modules, in order to be sure that the modules are defined, but you are not defining new modules there.

Programming is Easy…

What is the difference between attributes and properties in HTML/JAVASCRIPT ?

The difference is that,  the  prop  method deals with properties defined by the Dom  ApI  HTMLElement  object,  rather than attributes defined by the  htmL element in markup.

Often,  the attributes and properties are the same,  but this isn’t always the case.  A simple example is the  class  attribute,  which is represented in the  HTMLElement  object using the  className  property.

In general,  the  prop  method is the one you should use because it returns objects that are easier to work with than attribute values.

Programming is Easy !!!!

What is Undefined and Null in JavaScript?

Many people get confused with the difference between undefined and null.  In truth, it’s quite simple to see how it works.

=》Undefined is the default value assigned to any variable.
So, if I created a variable as follows and printed its value, it would be undefined.

var initialVariable;

=》Null has to be assigned by the programmer to empty a variable and is not a default value.

var initialVariable = ‘hello’;
initialVariable = null;

Both of these types are considered primitive data types in the JavaScript world.

Programming is Easy….